Roger J. Wendell
Defending 3.8 Billion Years of Organic EvolutionSM

First licensed in 1970, Amateur Extra class license since 1982...
(I also hold a General Radio Telephone License)

Morse Code Hand Keys
Elecraft K1, J38 and a
Morse Express Chirstmas Key
Q and Z Signals
(The Q code and Z code)



International "Q" Signals (The Q code) were developed by the International Radiotelegraphic Convention in 1912. Their intent was to shorten, or make more efficient, certain aspects of Morse code communications (Click Here for my Morse code page). The best feature of Q signals, to me, is that they are universally recognized in all languages (as long as the person receiving them knows Morse code!!).

As an amateur radio operator I used Q signals extensively while operating CW (Morse code) on the amateur bands. An odd aspect of Q Signals is that they're also used in voice communications, sometimes helping a bit with language barriers. However, I'm a bit skeptical since operators speaking the same language can communicate more effectively by saying something like, "I have four messages for you," rather than repeating "QTC4, QTC4," - etc. - just my opinion, of course!

Z Signals (The Z code) were developed shortly after the creation of the Q code and was widely used in commerce, military, and maritime operations. As a Coast Guard Radioman I used a lot of "Z" signals in addition to the "Q" signals I grew accustomed to as an amateur radio operator in my early teens. As for the Z signals themselves, I've listed a bunch of them further down this page...

- Roger J. Wendell
WBØJNR, 2004

Yellow Arrow Pointing Right Click Here for Morse code memories from telegraphers
Yellow Arrow Pointing Right Click Here for the International Morse code alphabet and phonetics
Hand Key   Click on this hand key to hear real Morse code! (227k .wav file)
Yellow Arrow Pointing Right Click Here for my tribute to Morse telegraphy




Notes from Visitors!
I also have messages on my Morse Memories, Guest Book and other pages!

Hello Roger Wendell

Just a short note. In the mid 60s, I was in the Navy at NAVCOMSTA (Naval Communication Station) Newport, RI and NAVCOMSTA Keflavik, Iceland. Reading through the Q and Z signals were like a scrap book of those years.

Thank you.


"Knowledge not shared is lost"

As long as we remember those who have given their all, as long as we embrace them in our memory, they will always be with us.

Don Kindell
November 16, 2008
Sidney, Ohio




Q Signals
(Q code)

Q Signals can be used either with, or without, a question mark.
An additional figure, frequency or other information can accompany
a Q signal. Here's an example:

QTC?    means: "Do you have any messages for me?"

QTC4    means: "I have 4 messages for you"

 QRK  What is the readability of my signals?  The readability of your signals is
 (1. Unworkable;
  3. Difficult;
  5. OK (Satisfactory))
 QRM  Are you being interfered with?  I am being interfered with
(2. Slightly;
 3. Moderately;
 5. Heavily).
 QRN  Are you troubled by static?  I am troubled by static
(2. Slightly;
 3. Moderately;
 5. Heavily).
 QRO  Shall I increase transmitter power?  Increase transmitter power
 QRP  Shall I decrease transmitter power?  Decrease transmitter power.
 QRQ  Shall I send faster?  Send faster ( ... wpm).
 QRS  Shall I send more slowly?  send at slower speed ( ... wpm).
 QRT  Shall I stop sending?  Stop sending
 QRU  Do you have any thing for me?  I have nothing for you
 QRZ  Who is calling me?  You are being called by ...
 QSB  Are my signals fading?  Your signals are fading.
 QSD  Is my keing defective?  Your keying is defective.
 QSG  Can I use batch working?  Send ... messages at a time.
 QSK  Can you hear me between your Morse
 Signals ... and ... if so can I break - in on
 your transmission?
 I can hear you between my signals;
--- break-in on my transmission.
 QSV  Shall I send a test signal?  Send a test signal
 (Usually a series of "V's").
 QSY  Shall I change to frequency ... kHz?  Change to frequency ... kHz
 QSZ  Shall I send each word or group twice?  Send each word or group twice.




Z Signals
(Z code)

 ZAA    Maintain proper circuit discipline
 ZAI    Run
(1. Caller
 2. Test Tape
 3. Synchronizing tape
 4. Traffic
 5. Marking Signals
 6. Spacing Signals
 7. Reversals
 8. Run teletypewriter space bar signals)
 ZAX    You are ...
 (1. causing interference. Listen for sending;
 2. Causing interference by inattention to order to wait
 3. Sending att the same time as
 4. causing delay by slowness in answering
 5. Anwering out of turn)
 ZBB    For following message ypu will require ...... total of copies
 ZBF    For following message use large message form
 ZBH    Make preliminary call before transmitting messages
 ZBI    Change to voice transmission and reception
 ZBL    I am unable to receive you while I am transmitting.
 Do not use break - in procedure.
 ZBO  Of what precedence is your message?  I have (or ... has) (numeral followed by
 precedence prosign for each
 precedence) message(s) for you (or for ... )
 ZBZ  What is the printing accuracy of my signals
 (or those of ) ?
 The printing accuracy of your signals (or those of) is
 (1. Tottally currupt
 2. Very currupt
 3. Partly currupt rendering traffic unacceptable
 4. Occasionally currupt but traffic acceptable
 5. Perfect .. no curreuption)
 ZDJ    I have a message containing groups to transmit to you
 (or to)
 ZDK  Will you repeat message or portion indicated?  Following repetition of is made in accordance
  with your request
 ZDO    I could not send message to ....
 ZDQ    Message was relayed to (at .... by on .... kc/s)
 ZEN    This message has been delivered by a separate
 transmission to the addressee(s) immediately following
 this operating signal.
 ZEN1    This message has been delivered by a
 Messenger/Courier to the addressee(s)
 immediatley following this operating signal
 ZEN2    This message has been delivered by
 Mail to the addressee(s) immediately
 following this operating signal
 ZEU    Exercise (drill) message
 ZEX    This is a book message and may be
 delivered as a single address message to
 addressees for whom you are responsible
 ZFA    Following message has been read
 (received or intercepted)
 ZFH    This message is passed to you for ...
 1. Action
 2. Information
 3. Comment
 NOTE The call sign follows the
 operating signal. e.g ZFH2 ØA is For
 information of the station ØA
 ZFR    Cancel transmission
 ZGE    Make your call sign ... times (number
 of times indicated)
 ZGF    Make call signs more distinctly
 ZGN  When was I (or ....) Last heard?  Nothing heard of you (or ....) (since ....).
 ZGO  What 18 my call sign and sequence of
 Your call sign is ....
 Answer after ....
 ZKA  Who is controlling station net?  I am (or .... is) controlling station on
 this frequency
 ZKB  Is it necessary to obtain permission of
 the controlling station (net control station)
 before transmitting messages?
 It is necessary to obtain the permission
 of the controlling station (net control station)
 before transmitting messages
 ZDK  Shall I take control of the net (for .... )
 (until .... )
 Take control of the net
 ZKE    I am reporting into the net
 ZKJ  May I close down (Until .... )?  (1. Close down (Until .... )
 2. I am closing down (until .... ))
 ZNB  What is the authentication?  Authentication is (may Include a time group)
 ZND    Your authentication is incorrect
 ZOE  Can you accept message?  Give me your message, I will for dispose of it.
 ZOF    Relay this message to now (or at).
 ZOK    Relay this message via ....
 ZOT    Transmit or handle this message at the
 lower precedence to the station(s)
 whose call sign follow(s).
 ZPF  What is the readability of the net (or of .... )?  The readability of the net (or of ....) is
 (1. Unworkable
 3. Difficult
 5. OK).
 ZRC  Shall I tune my Station to ....?
 (1. Proper frequency
 2. Zero beat with your (or ....'s) transmitter?
 Tune your station to
 (1. proper frequency
 2. Zero beat with my (or ....'s) transmitter
 ZRF  Will you send a tuning signal on your
 present frequency, (or on .... kc/s)?
 I am about to send a tuning signal on
 my present frequency, (or .... kc/s)
 ZRN  Do you intend to transmit on:
 1. Upper sideband;
 2. Lower sideband;
 3. Both sidebands indepently?
 I intend to transmit on:
 1. The USB;
 2. The LSB;
 3. Both Sidebands independently
 ZTD  Shall I use ....  Use ....
 ZTG  (Class of emission/type of transmission,
 See ACP 131).
 ZUA  Request time signal now (or at .... Hrs.).  Time signal will be transmitted now or at .... Hrs.
 ZUE    Affirmative (Yes).
 ZUG    Negative (No).
 ZUH    Unable to comply (or can first comply at ... Z (hrs))
 ZUI    Your attention is invited to
 ZUJ    Stand by
 ZUK  Appointment title desire personal
 conversation with (e.g. Fetch Sunray)
 Requested person (Appointment title)
 now ready ... (e.g. Sunray Speaking)
 ZXY    transmit this message to the addressees
 indicate by the numerals.
 ZXT    Tune antennas.
 ZYU    Change to frequency shift telegraphy
 (Shift c/s).




"92 Code"

In 1859, Western Union standardized the "92 code" in which the numbers from 1 to 92 were assigned meanings to help eliviate circuit congestion.
Additional numbers were added later. In amateur radio, the number "73" is most comonly used at the end of communications between stations. Low
Power, or "QRP" amateur radio operators regularly use "72" as "Best Wishes Low Power" at the end of their communciations.

1 Wait a minute. 25 Busy on another wire.
2 Very Important. 26 Put on ground wire.
3 What time is it? 27 Priority, very important.
4 Where shall I go ahead? 28 Do you get my writting?.
5 Have you business for me? 29 Private, deliver in sealed envelope.
6 I am ready. 30 No more - the end.
7 Are you ready? 31 Form 31 train order.
8 Close your key, stop breaking. 32 I understand that I am to ....
9 Priority business. Wire Chief's call. 33 Answer is paid.
10 Keep this circuit closed. 34 Message for all officiers.
12 Do you understand? 35 You may use my signal to answer this.
13 I understand. 37 Inform all interested.
14 What is the weather? 39 Important, with priority on thru wire.
15 For you and others to copy. 44 Answer promptly by wire.
17 Lightning here. 55 Important.
18 What's the trouble? 73 Best Regards.
19 Form 19 train order. 77 I have a message for you.
21 Stop for meal. 88 Love and kisses.
22 Wire test. 91 Superintendent's signal.
23 All stations copy. 92 Deliver Promptly.
24 Repeat this back. 134 Who is at the key?





  1. Antennas!
  2. ARRL - American Radio Relay League
  3. Coast Guard
  4. Club stations
  5. Coast Guard Club and Amateur Radio Net
  6. CWCom Morse Code over the Internet
  7. Extra Class License
  8. Hand Keys on display by OZ2CPU
  9. FISTS The International Morse Preservation Society
  10. K3WWP's Successful Procedures for CW QSO's
  11. K9DE Learning and Using Morse Code
  1. Maritime radio
  2. Memorizing Morse code by Wolf at 1728 Software Systems
  3. Morse code
  4. Morse code alphabet and phonetics
  5. Morse Code Company
  6. Morse code memories from telgraphers
  7. QRP and Amateur Radio
  8. QSL cards
  9. Spark Gap info by John S. Belrose
  10. Spark Gap Recording from 1921 by VK7RO
  11. ZUT Coast Guard CW Operators Association


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